Urban environment management is a very vital issue under this comprehensive and integrated DDP as environmental pollution is an emerging issue in case of urban areas.
Until and unless a comprehensive and scientific Environmental protection and pollution control plan can be formulated the development of an urban area can never be possible, as the human beings, other animals, plants and trees, even the non living things, air, water, etc and of course the socio-cultural aspects, together create the environment of a particular area.
The purposes of preparation of Environment Management Plan are -
o To enable the ULB to take initiative that will protect the environment, and help avoid long term negative impact on the environment, and
o To identify linkages with other sub-component plans of the DDP and ensure that the environment element is suitably factored into the plan.
o To generate awareness regarding environmental protection among the citizens.
Chapter-1 Objectives for Environment Management Plan:
Development Objectives are some goals. The Bishnupur Municipality will achieve those goals if they are successful in implementation of all the projects planned in the Environment Management Plan (EMP). Development objectives for Bishnupur Municipality are:
o To upgrade the Environmental living condition, campaign regularly to aware public about various types of pollution generating & environmental degradation activities including disaster management preparedness.
o Prevent pollution of natural water resources by cleaning and restoration of ponds and other water bodies.
o To take proper measure to provide (i) safe drinking water to all (ii) to restore water bodies and (iii) recycling of water.
o To ensure improved hygienic condition to all and eliminate in-sanitary practices like open defecation.
o To provide effective area drainage systems, so as to avoid hazards of water logging. Chapter 2: Environment Plan – Situation assessment
Bishnupur Municipality is one of the oldest Municipalities in West Bengal and it is a very old historical town. Geographically this Municipal Township is situated under the semi-arid climate adjacent to “Raar”area. Drought-like situation and also the flood situation is a common feature of this Municipal area. In this town one can found specimens of ancient Bengali sculpture.
Geographical Situation: Bishnupur is located at 23°05′N 87°19′E23.08°N 87.32°E. It has an average elevation of 59 metres (194 feet).
Maximum Temperature: 48°C
Minimum Temperature: 5°C
Annual Average Rainfall: 1500mm
Height Over Mean Sea-level: 19m (approx.)
Nature of soil: ------ Raarh
Problem of Iron pollution in Ground water.
Environmental Status in Bishnupur Municipality (KM):
No specific study or monitoring was conducted in this respect earlier. But as one can feel, the ambient air quality here is good as compared to other urban areas where concentration of industries is more. Broken roads and foul smelling drains at few places, however, cause pollution of air and concern for the citizens.
They find noise pollution in congested streets and roads sound due to movement of vehicles and use of horn in busy hours. Otherwise the Municipality is not much stressed due to this issue.
Drinking Water Quality:
The water supply system of Bishnupur town is not very old; this system was actually initiated in the era of 1970s. The water level of Bishnupur town is much below the existing ground level, and the quantity of supplied water is not adequate. Ground water is the only source of water and during ward committee consultations it is revealed that the ground water table is gradually going down and situation worsens as usual during the summer. A serious thought is required to be given to explore the feasibility of utilization of a surface water source to eliminate / reduce dependence on ground water.
Land and Soil:
There is no scientific system for collection, transportation and disposal by treatment of solid waste generated within the Municipal area. Land and soil are getting polluted on this account. Low lying areas, open places and even the roadside spaces are randomly used for dumping the solid waste from the households and places like markets and other non residential areas. This condition is unhealthy and not acceptable by any standard.
Basically the ULB can be termed as the ‘city of pond’. In the town one can find out easily that there are a number of ponds. Though some those are usable and some are not. The unusable ponds often causes environmental hazards, as from these sources the mosquito and other pests born easily.
The establishment of Bishnupur Municipality was in the King’s era in the year 1872. So at that time the king of Bishnupur took some initiatives to construct the drainage system of the Municipal area and as a result of this initiatives there was constructed some big sized high drains throughout the Municipal area. Years after years these high drains proved to be useful for draining out of polluted water outside of Bishnupur town. But as the time passes away the area of the town was extended from time to time. So the present drainage system of the town is not sufficient for the town. Some of those above stated high drains needs renovation and there also needs some new drains to meet the present as well as projected future requirements. As this area is highly flood-prone area in the monsoon season, so there is a need of thinking about new drainage system to protect/minimize the flood effect.
Sanitation facility in the area is not so good. There is only one community latrine in the Bus stand, except this one, there is no community latrine found in the area. The practice of open defecation is very much in existence among a substantial part of the Municipal population.
SWM: (solid wastes management)
In this sector the daily collection of the solid wastes by the Municipal sweeper is done on a daily basis. No work like door to door collection of solid wastes has yet been initiated. There is no specific place also for placing the collected waste. In short, the solid waste management is yet to be initiated.
In this town one can find birds of many species including some migratory birds. The water bodies within the town attract many water birds like the dabchick / little grebe (Pankauri), ducks of many kinds. Besides one gets to see kites, pheasants, fowls & partridges, owls, pigeons & doves, woodpeckers, cuckoos, orioles and shrikes, crows. The smaller birds one can found in the town are the tailorbird, wagtails, sunbirds and weaverbirds.
Presently, there is a project namely ‘Water supply project under UIDSSMT’, which is under execution. In the project the surface water of the river Bhagirathi will be brought to Bishnupur by pipeline. Under this project the total residents of Bishnupur Municipality will be benefited. Presently the ULB has a project of collecting, solid wastes from residential and commercial area on a regular basis with the use of different carrier vehicles.
Detail of Citizen’s feedbacks on, different environmental problems throughout the town has been recorded, the suggestions received are considered here to make this plan a scientific and need based in true sense.
From the above discussions, it is reflected that the major environmental problems of this town, addressed by the citizens, are, o The problem of Iron in the Ground water.
o Lack of sanitation facility in general and in some of the important places in particular.
o Reduced capacities of the wetlands/ ponds/ water bodies due to deposition of solids.
o Pollution of water in ponds and other water bodies due to contamination of polluted wastewater from households in absence of an appropriate drainage system.
o Irregular cleaning of drains.
o Necessity for increase in green cover.
Roles and mandates of various related institutions for preservation of environment and pollution control within Bishnupur Municipal area has also been considered for situational assessment for preparation of Environment Management plan.